An Analysis of Pattern of Development in Iran between Two Revolutions Based on Political Economy and Social Order


This artide aims at studying the pattern of development in Iran between two revolutions (1907-1979), based on social order and political economy. Social order could be of limited or open access and the analysis of political economy is based on the characteristics of social groups and government. Social groups have heterogenous interests thereby their preferences in regard to institutions and their policy-making is varied. Under these circumstances, the kind of institution and resulting policy-making are determined by the government. ;
This article written on the basis of social order and political economy approaches, shows that Irans social order between two revolutions was of limited access. In this kind of social order, institutions are designed to control and restrict the level of access to both economic and political organizations. Thus, during this period, social order faced “double imbalance” (in political and economic terms) and “access imbalance” (in economic and political systems). Double imbalance is a consequence of economic development policy making in a closed political system. Limited political elite circulation and very small access of both low and middle classes of society to political system (even during 1941-1953 period, when competition between political groups was remarkable) are indices of political access imbalance during that period. Imbalance access to economic system, can also be shown by people´s access to economic organizations (such as Banks); this article illustrates that a major part of financial facilities of banking system during that period was allocated to dominant coalition members and the level of people´s access to banking system was restricted. Finally, although in both Reza Shah and Mohammad Reza Shah periods, economic growth was experienced, above mentioned imbalances along with a divided society (and not class society) led to social unrest followed by the collapse of the political system.