Asia is experiencing a new generation of regionalism called neo-regionalism. Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) as a successful regional organization tries to develop relations with other countries and recruits new members to achieve its political, economic and security goals. The increasing power of the SCO led by China and supported by Russia has caused growing concern in Washington . The question here is , does the SCO as a regional power, pose a threat against the U.S. interests in Central Asia? The answer to this question is that the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, threatens seriously the U.S. interests in the three areas of Afghanistan, energy sector and regional stability. This article examines this regional organization as a growing threat to the U.S. interests in Central Asia.