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No 90
Vol. 90 No. 28
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Effectiveness of governments is one of the important issues which entail some effects and consequences including the enhancement of the legitimacy and authority of governments. This research seeks to find the main strategies and policies for improving the efficiency of the Islamic system in the thought of the Supreme Leader. This constitutes the main question of the present study. This importance of this derives from the fact that it is related to the strength of the Islamic system. Not paying enough attention to this issue or ignoring it can lead to the weakening of the popular element of the Islamic system. This point shows the necessity of conducting this research. The authors seek to find the main themes of the goal and question of the research by using thematic analysis method and the MAXQDA software. Finally, after exploring and contemplating the statements of the Supreme Leader, they concluded that there are two kinds of "principal" and "partial" strategies for improving the efficiency of the system, and also there are two "personal" and "organizational" levels in the policy area to do this. They should be envisaged by top and middle managers and officials in their decision-making. The enhancement of efficiency requires the training of Jihadi managers and their appointment to the positions in different levels based on meritocracy. Another aspect of this is appointing young managers to top positions and injecting vitality, energy and mobility into the managing staff of the country. This leads to improving the efficiency of the system through considering the guidance of the Supreme Leader of the Revolution based on using internal capabilities and applying strategies and policies at different periods of time.
Asghar Eftekhari
Keywords : effectiveness ، efficiency ، Islamic system ، strategy ، policy ، Supreme Leader ، Ayatollah Khamenei
Science and technology parks play an important role in knowledge-based economic network through human resources management (HRM) and in cooperation with various regional institutions. Therefore, developing and analyzing a model for human resource management at science and technology parks is essential due to the importance and the interactive nature of the matter. More importantly, a study of the current HRM models at science and technology parks showed that they operate mostly on the one of the levels and elements within the value network of science and technology parks. Accordingly, this study attempts to elaborate on the interactive model based on the holistic nature of the system dynamics approach and its focus on the interaction among the various components of a system. The proposed model was developed and tested following 15 sessions of group model building with the stakeholders, and different scenarios were identified and simulated. The simulation results showed that focusing simultaneously on motivation and human resource quality of staff, gradual withdrawal of support and also developing communications within park's tenants, especially those used for technology transfer, market development and intellectual and human resource exchange are highly effective on productivity of the model.
Dariush Pourserajian - Mohammad Saeed Taslimi - - Alinaghi Mashayekhi
Keywords : science and technology parks ، Interactive Model for Human Resources Management ، system dynamics, Group Model Building (GMB)
The beginning of Islamic republic's era in the initial months after the victory of the Islamic Revolution was a unique experience shaped by the combination of republicanism and religious idea in a country with an ancient history and longstanding civilization. The nascent and innovative nature of the new political system in Iran along with the lack of a relevant and internationally acceptable pattern for collaboration between religion and politics in the framework of the theory of nation-state has challenged the dominant paradigm of political secularism. For this reason, we have witnessed the occurrence of internal crises and foreign interventions during the consolidation years of the Islamic Republic of Iran, on the one hand, and the efforts made by the leaders of the Islamic Revolution to explain the principles and foundations of the Islamic Republic, on the other hand. The special situation of the Islamic Republic of Iran in confronting its opponents and engaging with them during internal crises and foreign interventions, has been one of the fundamental problems of Iranian political system since its establishment which has exposed the government to sympathetic, oppositional, and ironic viewpoints focusing on its lack of political tolerance. Given the unrivalled role of the thoughts and political behavior of the founder of the Islamic Revolution in formulating and legitimating policy-making processes, the main question of this article is that why and how the component of political tolerance has been realized in the leadership strategy of Imam Khomeini? The authors while defining the notion of tolerance in Western and Islamic thoughts and stating their meaning differences by using a data-based method and focusing on conceptualization, examine political tolerance as a strategic component in Imam Khomeini's thoughts as a desired model. In the second section, they represent and reinterpret Imam Khomeini's political behavior in confronting its opponents and engaging with them in the three fields of insight, orientation and action, and then, explain and provide the realized model of political tolerance during the first period of the Islamic Revolution to respond the question related to the application of political tolerance in the leadership strategy of Imam Khomeini.
Mohammad Bagher Khoramshad - Yasser Barkhordari
Keywords : political tolerance ، strategy ، political behavior ، Imam Khomeini ، political opponents
“Home” as one of the main components of urban lifestyle has long been considered by different scholars, but the metaphor of “home” and its changes in adaptation to the new style of urban life is an issue that, despite its importance, has been researched little. We, Iranians, still live alongside the modern style of urban life with elements and attachments of the traditional style and adhere to many of our traditional values. However, imitation of the past will be futile as far as eradicating it. It seems that to preserve the ideas of Iranian housing, before coming to the future, it is necessary to identify possible scenarios based on different metaphors from the house and to map properly the subject literature, along with the underlying deconstruction and deeper investigation of the issue. The present study whit Future Oriented Approach by Causal Layered Analysis in four layers of analysis including litany, social causes, discourse/worldview and myth/metaphor, together with the identification of alternative futures, attempts to scenario, based on metaphors, and consequently, alternative discourses from the “home” and provides unified and evolutionary scenarios based on the metaphor of “home” in the future of cities. CLA was used by semi-structured interviews to identify the main themes of the analysis at the level of specialists related to the topic. According to the findings, four scenarios were presented in relation to the concept of home and the creation of alternative futures that include smart home, home as a digital cloud, human home and movable home.
Atefeh Sedeghati - Farbod Diba - Farbod Diba - Azita Belali Oskui
Keywords : home ، modern city life style ، CLA ، scenario
In recent years, the element of technology in the oil and gas industry, particularly in upstream projects, has gained increasing importance due to its positive effects on optimisation of oil recovery, maximum efficient rate (MER) of the reservoirs, greater quality and quantity of the petroleum products, establishment of sustainable development, protection of environments and adding economic values to the petroleum projects. Nowadays, necessity of technology becomes an inevitable contractual element in petroleum contracts .However, the absence of technology or its relevant issues in some petroleum contracts or where technology envisages in some petroleum contracts as a soft language, but not as a mandatory element, it gives a doubt on what would be the role and effect of the technology in the petroleum contracts? Where exactly technology stands in the oil and gas industry? And what would be the parties’ rights and obligations toward the technology? Based on the studies carried out in petroleum contracts, judicial proceedings and arbitration awards, it is concluded in this article that technology has, nowadays, become a very important part of lex petrolea, whether in the form of soft law or hard law. Further, it is also understood from this writing that the concept of the unitisation, transfer and development of technology (UTDT) as one of the nine elements of the TEFCEL presents, actively, in the petroleum contracts, becomes a demand of the host countries and/or NOSc, so that they oblige the foreign investors and/or IOCs to carry out the petroleum operations and to fulfil the terms and conditions of the petroleum contracts in their countries, according to the requirements of the UTDT. Finally, it is resulted from this study that the mandatory requirement of technology becomes, nowadays, a predominant environment in the oil and gas contracts, to the extent that it is either considered to be mandatory requirements of law or contract, the breach of which shall impose legal and contractual sanction against the defaulting party and will give a right to the innocent party even to terminate the contract and to seek damages.
Seyed Nasrollah Ebrahimi - Hamiderza Abbasi
Keywords : technology, use of technology ، transfer of technology ، technology development ، oil contracts

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